Chemical elements
    PDB 101d-1f5m
    PDB 1f6j-1kdh
    PDB 1kfo-1o3l
    PDB 1o5m-1to3
    PDB 1uhj-1zpz
    PDB 1zw9-2fkk
    PDB 2fpr-2j9m
    PDB 2ja5-2qfe
    PDB 2qgd-2wb9
    PDB 2wbb-3biy
    PDB 3bm9-3eki
    PDB 3en9-3hvo
    PDB 3hzw-3lbz
    PDB 3ld5-3ot3
    PDB 3oyp-4de3
    PDB 4dey-9est

Bromine Production


Seawater, lakes and wells brine as well as potassium manufacture liquor (with Bromine concentration up to 4-5 kg/m3) serve as main bromine sources. Bromine is isolated by passing Cl2 through with following sublimation by water vapour if Bromine concentration exceeds 1 kg/m3 or by air, if less, in packed columns made of ceramics, glass or titanium. Solutions with alkali reaction are previously acidified, usually by H2SO4 until pH 2.5-3.0. The heated reaction solution is supplied to the top of the column, water vapour - through the bottom and Cl2 somewhat higher. Vapour, which comes out of the column, is condensed. Then Bromine is separated from water and refined from Cl2 and organic contamination.

If Bromine less than 1 kg/m3 it is separated or by air. Solution previously treated by Cl2 is supplied to the top of the column and air - to the bottom. Bromine is captured by FeBr2 from the bromine-air mixture. FeBr3, the reaction product is reduced by iron turnings until FeBr2. In another method SO2 is added to the bromine-air mixture. In the presence of water HBr and H2SO4 appear. Bromine is isolated by Cl2. For Bromine absorption NaOH or Na2CO3 (3Na2CO3 + 3Br2 = 5NaBr + NaBrO3 + 3CO2) are used. Bromine is isolated by H2SO4. Residual Bromine is treated by Na2S2O3.

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